September 2011 | Thermal Test Result for b-panel Wall and Roof Deck


Thermal Test Result for Wall and Roof Deck b-panel®
Save Electricity, Save The Earth

Abstact

Tropical climate which is identical with high humidity and heat makes it difficult for people to find the comfort in daily life. Therefore, new innovations in building materials are required, for example, the usage of materials with good thermal insulation, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS). b-panel® is a sandwich reinforced concrete panels which isespecially designed with a layer of EPS in the middle. The application of b-panel® in buildings can block the propagation of cold or heat out of the room and so conversely. In the long term, this will have positive impact for the preservation of the environment because the energy consumption for the air conditioning (A/C) is reduced. Occupants will also save money on electricity costs.

     Thermal comfort is a condition in which we feel comfortable, not too hot or cold. Thermal comfort is influenced by the factors of temperature, solar radiation humidity and air movement. Indonesia is a tropical country with an average temperature of 27 oC in densely populated areas. During daytime, the temperature could exceed 35 oC with high humidity levels. Generally, people would feel comfortable at the temperature of 22.8 oC – 25.8 oC, with humidity levels below 70%. Thermal comfort can be achieved quickly and easily with the usage of A/C. However, it would consume a significant electrical energy.
     High power consumption could be overcome by using thermal insulation on buildings that can block the influence of outdoor temperature to the temperature in the room. One of these insulation materials is Expanded Polystyrene (EPS). This material is known among the people with the name of styrofoam which is popular for containers of ice cream and fresh fish packaging because of the excellent thermal insulation. However, b-panel® utilitizes construction-grade EPS, which is fire retardant, and of specific densities.
     Thermal insulation is a method to reduce the rate of heat transfer. Good thermal insulation material has a low coefficient of thermal conductivity (λ-Values), moisture resistant, and not sensitive to weather or insects. The table below shows the λ-Values of various materials commonly used as building material.

Table 1. λ-Values

λ-Values (W/m.K)
Concrete 1,280
Red Brick 1,150
Glass 1,050
Lightweight Brick 0,160
Wood 0,144
Fiberglass 0,050
EPS 0,036

To prove the superior λ-Values, PT. Beton Elemenindo Putra performed test by creating a thermal test facilities, which are two identical rooms. Both rooms are located in the same location, with identical dimensions, solar orientation, wall and roof deck thickness but with different materials. One room uses conventional materials with red brick walls and cast in-situ concrete roof, while the other room uses b-panel® for wall and roof. The purpose of this test is to compare the temperature of each room, which includes the measurement of temperature inside and outside. The test was conducted from 10.30 am to 16.00 pm.


Image 1. Thermal Test Rooms (a) conventional, (b) b-panel®

Table 2. Thermal Test Result (Sept 13th, 2011)

NO. Testing Time Outdoor Temperature (oC) Indoor Temperature (oC) Weather
Conventional b-panel®
1 10.30 30.3 27.9 27.9 Sunny
2 11.00 30.1 27.9 27.9 Sunny
3 11.30 31.0 28.7 28.3 Sunny
4 12.00 30.2 28.3 28.1 Semi – Overcast
5 12.30 30.5 28.5 28.3 Semi – Overcast
6 13.00 30.7 28.8 28.3 Sunny
7 13.30 31.2 29.3 28.9 Sunny
8 14.00 31.7 29.8 29.3 Sunny
9 14.30 31.1 30.0 29.3 Semi – Overcast
10 15.00 31.3 30.1 29.3 Semi – Overcast
11 15.30 31.1 30.5 29.6 Semi – Overcast
12 16.00 31.0 30.7 29.5 Semi – Overcast
Perbandingan Suhu Luar dengan Suhu Dalam Ruangan Batu Bata dan b-panel®

Diagram 1. Comparison of The Outdoor Temperature with Indoor Temperature of Bricks and b-panel®

     Beside the room temperature test, PT. Beton Elemenindo Putra also performed measurements on ceiling surface temperature of both room with Infrared (IR) Thermometer. Here is a picture of the process and result of testing:

IR Thermometer – Alat Uji Suhu Permukaan Langit-langit

Image 2. IR Thermometer – Temperature Test Equipment for Surface Ceiling

Table 3. Ceiling Room’s Temperature Test Result, with IR Thermometer (Sept 28th, 2011)

No.

Testing Time

Outdoor Temperature (oC)

Surface Temperature of The Ceiling (oC)

Weather

Conventional

b-panel®

1

10.30

31.7

28.4

27.4

Sunny

2

11.00

32.2

28.4

26.8

Semi – overcast

3

11.30

32.8

28.6

27.4

Sunny

4

12.00

32.2

29.6

27.6

Sunny

5

12.30

33.8

31.2

28.6

Sunny

6

13.00

34.1

31.8

28.7

Sunny

7

13.30

34.6

32.0

29.2

Sunny

8

14.00

35.2

32.6

29.4

Sunny

9

14.30

34.2

33.2

29.2

Sunny

10

15.00

33.8

32.8

28.6

Semi – overcast

11

15.30

34.4

35.6

31.4

Semi – overcast

12

16.00

35.2

36.4

32.2

Semi – overcast

. Comparison of The Outside Temperature with Surface Temperature Top Ceiling Conventional Roof Floor vs. b-panel®

Diagram 2. Comparison of The Outside Temperature with Surface Temperature Top Ceiling Conventional Roof Floor vs. b-panel®

The test results show that the temperature of the b-panel® room is relatively stable, not as much affected by outdoor temperature due to the thermal insulation capability of b-panel® and can block the heat from the outside into the room, and so conversely. Ceiling temperature differences which is up to 4 oC cooler can be enjoyed by using the b-panel®. On the other hand, conventional roof floor heats the room even after the sunset (thermal mass effect).

KWh meter  pada Fasilitas Ruang Uji Termal PT. Beton Elemenindo Putra (Konsumsi Listrik untuk A/C ruangan batu bata v.s b-panel® adalah 20 KWh v.s 26 KWh)

Image 3. Identical A/C units and KWh meters at PT. Beton Elemenindo Putra Thermal Test Facility
(Consumption of Electricity for A/C room brick vs. b-panel® is 20 KWh v.s 26 KWh)

     The usage of A/Calso illustrates the advantage of b-panel® The thermal test facilities of PT. Beton Elemenindo Putra are equipped with identical A/C units for each room that is connected by separate KWh meters. Within the same period, the room temperature of b-panel® cooled faster, by blocking heat from the outside to get inside. The use of A/C was more efficient, with low power usage . Test result: KWh usage was 15% lower (Note: the test site was in Bandung, where the weather outside is not too hot. KWh savings will be more significant for the warmer coastal areas).
     This power saving is also one of the key strategies for “Go Green”. As we know, most sources of electrical energy in Indonesia use coal which is fossil fuels that produce a lot of CO2. The diagram below shows that the Steam Power Plants (PLTU) coal-fired power plants, are the most widely used in Java and Bali.

Proporsi Kapasitas Pembangkit Listrik Jawa-Bali Sumber : Daftar Pembangkit Listrik di Indonesia, http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki,September 2011

The continuous rise of global warming increases the energy consumption for A/C that produce CO2 emissions. This will increase the earth’s average temperature, so back again this cycle will increase A/C consumption and so forth. Otherwise, the use of b-panel® as building insulation will reduce the energy consumption for A/C and slow the process of global warming which will have a positive impact on reducing the demand of electricity for A/C, and so on. Thereby, the process of earth’s climate deterioration could be slowed down.

Ilustrasi Dampak Pemanasan Global – Peningkatan Konsumsi A/C

 

Sumber: b-panel® Engineering Team

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